"Self-regulated learning has also helped distinguish between novice and expert thinking. Drawing on the work of Schraw (1998), Bransford et al. (2000), and Zimmerman (2002), Grossman (2009) analyzed the very different perspectives that novices and experts take on their own learning. According to Grossman, novices tend to believe in an external locus of control and may give up on learning challenging material because they see their innate abilities as inadequate for the task. When they do choose to learn, novices go about it in a rather haphazard manner. They do not set goals or break up the task into steps or monitor their learning progress. They fail to evaluate and reorient their learning methods, if necessary. They rely on the feedback of others and compare their performance with others, rather than self-assessing and restructuring goals they have not met. In problem-solving situations, they rarely progress beyond exploring the problem (Schoenfeld, 2010). Experts, on the other hand, manage and control their learning all along, acknowledging failure as a signal to modify their learning strategies (Zimmerman, 2002). In problem solving, they read, explore, analyze, plan, implement their plans, and evaluate on their way to a solution (Schoenfeld, 2010)."